新經濟學與台灣戴明圈: The New Economics and A Taiwanese Deming Circle

「華人戴明學院」是戴明哲學的學習共同體 ,致力於淵博型智識系統的研究、推廣和運用。 The purpose of this blog is to advance the ideas and ideals of W. Edwards Deming.

2014年7月22日星期二

品質眾生相(267- 268):中日McDonald’s、KFC、Starbucks某中國供應商:變質肉類和篡改保質期Air-Safety Data to Be Shared More Widely



268
A suspect meat scandal in China engulfed Starbucks and Burger King on Tuesday and spread to Japan where McDonald's said a Chinese supplier accused of selling expired beef and chicken had provided 20% of the meat in its chicken nuggets.
McDonald's in Japan also says it used Chinese supplier Husi Food for its...
THEGUARDIAN.COM




麥當勞(McDonald’s)、肯德基(KFC) 某中國供應商:變質肉類和篡改保質期  

向中國顧客致歉

英國《金融時報》 韓碧如 北京報道


麥當勞(McDonald’s)、肯德基(KFC)中國業務的一家供應商被指供應變質肉類和篡改保質期。

上海市食藥監部門昨日表示,已查封市郊一家美資肉類和家禽加工企業,此前該企業被電視台曝光在過期肉類產品上貼新標簽。

肯德基和麥當勞已向顧客致歉。

民眾通常對國外食品企業比國內競爭對手投以更信任的目光,但當地媒體的報道為這一聲譽蒙上陰影。



18個月前一項調查發現,百勝(Yum Brands)旗下的肯德基的一家家禽供應商過度使用抗生素。2013年百勝在華營業利潤占其總營業利潤的35%。

中國市場研究(China Market Research)的分析師本•凱文德(Ben Cavendar)說:“新聞一旦傳出,他們很難再說服中國消費者(肯德基)有能力對供應商進行必要檢查。”

中國的食品供應鏈規模擴張迅速,但長期存在食品安全問題。不過在最新這起事故中,涉事加工商上海福喜食品有限公司(Shanghai Husi Food)為總部位於美國伊利諾伊州的OSI集團的子公司,已運營近20年。
在位於上海市郊嘉定區的福喜工廠內,一名員工說:“我們正配合政府部門的調查。”
20世紀90年代初麥當勞進入中國市場,結果發現當地沒有任何供應鏈,OSI便成了這家快餐集團的供應商。該集團在中國內地經營著8家肉類或家禽加工廠。
今年1月沃爾瑪(Walmart)在華門店所銷售“五香驢肉”被檢測出狐狸DNA,隨後該產品被召回。
百勝發微博宣佈,已停用上海福喜供應的肉類食品原料。
麥當勞稱,已停用上海福喜供應的所有食品原料,預期會出現某些原料斷貨的情況。
北京的肯德基和麥當勞餐廳依然如往常一樣繁忙 ,盡管有些顧客表示他們只點飲料。
“你能怎麽辦?”在北京一家地下商場的麥當勞里,一位母親給兒子買了個雞肉漢堡後嘆氣道,“你只能暫時不吃而已。”
另一位正在大嚼漢堡的人咆哮道:“你能別在我吃的時候談這個嗎?”
Owen Guo補充報道
譯者/曲雯雯





267
Air-Safety Data to Be Shared More Widely
Global Initiative to Include Business-Jet Incidents

July 13, 2014 4:20 p.m. ET


International aviation officials are taking analysis of safety information to a new level: For the first time, they want airline data shared on a truly global level and to incorporate information about hazardous incidents involving business jets.
To reach those twin goals, the International Civil Aviation Organization, an arm of the United Nations, has launched a pilot project with airlines and independent air-safety experts to make safety-data collection and assessment more comprehensive. Details of the initiative haven't...

Google Quality Rater Guidelines

ENTREPRENEURS 
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7/18/2014 @ 11:11上午 |2,038 views

Google Quality Rater Guidelines Leaked: New Insights Revealed

A hot topic among webmasters and SEO professionals over the past week has been the leaked copy of Google’s Quality Rater Guidelines.
Not to be confused with Google’s Webmaster Guidelines, the Quality Rater Guidelines offer guidance to Google’s internal team of human search quality raters who measure the quality of search results and test algorithm changes.
Google updates this document periodically, and whenever they do, a leaked copy tends to emerge…much to the excitement of SEO professionals and marketers hoping to glean new insights from Google with regard to what actions they can take to help their website rank higher in search results. To read the document yourself (at least until it gets removed), you can access ithere.
While there are no major surprises contained in the manual, it does provide us with more detailed information and examples than we get from Google’s public-facing Webmaster Guidelines.
In this article, we’ll explore some of the changes to the most recent version of this document, as well as what these changes mean to business owners and marketers.
While these guidelines probably aren’t used for directly ranking websites (they’re used only to test search results for quality), they are helpful in order to gain a better understanding of how Google defines a “high quality” website.
A Re-Emphasis on ‘Your Money Your Life’ Pages
Although the concept of ‘Your Money Your Life’ (YMYL) pages was included in the previous manual, the newly leaked document emphasizes the importance of these types of pages. YMYL are pages or sites that could potentially impact the “future happiness, health or wealth of users.” These types of pages, because of their potential life-changing ramifications, are held to particularly high standards.
The manual lists some examples of these types of pages:
  • Shopping or financial transaction pages: webpages which allow users to make purchases, transfer money, pay bills, etc. online (such as online stores and online banking pages).
  • Financial information pages: webpages which provide advice or information about investments, taxes, retirement planning, home purchase, paying for college, buying insurance, etc.
  • Medical information pages: webpages which provide advice or information about health, drugs, specific diseases or conditions, mental health, nutrition, etc.
  • Legal information pages: webpages which provide legal advice or information on topics such as divorce, child custody, creating a will, becoming a citizen, etc.
  • Other: there are many other topics which you may consider YMYL, such as child adoption, car safety information, etc. Please use your judgment.
Takeaway: Webmasters and marketers should be keenly aware of what sites and pages qualify as YMYL content: if the content of your site could have an impact on the wealth, health or happiness of your readers, consider (at the least) having your content vetted by an industry expert. If you do have expertise or authority in a particular area, be sure to clearly display this on your site, not only for the benefit of human rates, but for the benefit of your readers as well.
E-A-T: Expertise/Authoritativeness/Trustworthiness
In this latest edition of the guidelines, a major emphasis has been put on the concept of E-A-T. While these factors have always been part of the evaluation of a site, this manual has defined the concept more explicitly. When evaluating sites and pages, raters will be looking for indications that the content meets these three criteria.
The guidelines indicate that raters should be looking for official indications of expertise when evaluating a site or page. For instance, if a site is offering medical advice, it should be written or vetted by a person or organization with the appropriate level of medical expertise. Likewise, information on money should come from someone with a high degree of experience or expertise in finance.
Raters are also told, however, that formal expertise isn’t always necessary. For instance, the owner of a hobby site will be unlikely to have any official degree of expertise on the topic; however, the “everyday” knowledge and expertise they possess may be enough to qualify them as an expert.
The guidelines state:
High quality pages and websites need enough expertise to be authoritative and trustworthy on their topic. Keep in mind that there are “expert” websites of all types, even gossip websites, fashion websites, humor websites, forum and Q&A pages, etc. In fact, some types of information are found almost exclusively on forums and discussions, where community of experts can provide valuable perspectives on specific topics….Some topics require less formal expertise. Many people write extremely detailed, helpful reviews of products or restaurants. Many people share tips and life experiences on forums, blogs, etc. These ordinary people may be considered experts in topics where they have life experience.
Raters are reminded that the standard for expertise will vary depending on the topic of the page. The question raters are told to ask themselves is, “What kind of expertise is required for the page to achieve its purpose well?”
Takeaway: Assess your website’s content and try to determine whether someone else would consider it authoritative and trustworthy. Is it written by an expert in your industry?
Positive Reputation Important for Determining Quality
A brief clarification on the topic of positive reputation has been added to version 5.0 of the handbook. The guidelines state:
Reputation is an important consideration when using the High rating. While a page can merit the High rating with no reputation, the High rating cannot be used for any website that has a convincing negative reputation. A very positive reputation can be a reason for using the High rating for an otherwise Medium page.
This means that excellent content alone isn’t enough: If your site consistently (and “convincingly”) receives negative reviews via blogs or forums, it won’t receive a high rating.
Raters are told to investigate the reputation of a site by running Google searches for site reviews, news articles, forum posts, BBB ratings, etc. which could give insight into the trustworthiness of a site. It’s noted that small websites will not be held to the same standards as larger sites; the guidelines state:
Many small, local businesses or community organizations have a small “web presence” and rely on word of mouth, not online reviews. For these smaller businesses and organizations, lack of reputation should not be considered an indication of low page quality.
Takeaway: A lack of online reviews isn’t a problem; it’s negative reviews that site owners should be concerned about. This seems to imply that search engine reputation management is more important than previously thought; it not only affects potential customers researching your brand, but also potentially your organic search rankings.
A Focus on Supplementary Content
Supplementary content (SC) is defined as any content that isn’t a page’s main content or ads. Some examples of supplementary content include footer info, links to related content, site navigation, features that help shoppers find similar products, etc. The manual points out that some of these features are more likely to be found on large websites. It states
Smaller websites such as websites for local businesses and community organizations, or personal websites and blogs, may need less SC for their purpose. A page can still receive aHigh or even Highest rating with no SC at all.
Takeaway: Webmasters should be asking themselves what types of supplementary content they can include to add value or to improve the users’ experience of the page. What tools, resources or articles would be helpful to the reader? How can you incorporate that into the page?
Other Tips for Webmasters
A few other important tips for webmasters are found scattered throughout the guide. Some of the most significant include:
  • Displaying your contact info and customer service info is more important than ever, particularly for shopping sites. If you run an e-commerce site, be sure to keep your ‘About’ and contact info prominent in order to convey the credibility of your site.
  • Page design matters: Ads should not distract users from finding the main content of a page, but should be easily “ignorable”. A page’s attractiveness is irrelevant, but users should be able to easily determine where the main content of a page is. Pages with many ads — particularly those at the top of page — may be given lower ratings.
  • Proper maintenance of a website is important: In order for a site to be deemed high quality, it must contain updated information; this is particularly important for news sites and other sites where current information is critical (like those containing medical info). Local or smaller sites are not expected to be updated as frequently.
What Makes a High Quality Page?
While this isn’t necessarily anything we didn’t know already, section 4.1 of the manual succinctly summarizes the main elements of a high quality page. The section is a nice checklist for site owners to follow to ensure their site is of the highest quality.
High quality rating requires at least one of the following high quality characteristics:
  • A satisfying amount of high quality MC [main content, as opposed to supplementary content].
  • The page and website are expert, authoritative, and trustworthy for the topic of the page.
  • The website has a good reputation for the topic of the page.
In addition, the page and website should have most of the following:
  • A satisfying amount of website information, for example, About Us information, Contact or Customer Service information, etc.
  • SC which contributes to a satisfying user experience on the page and website.
  • Functional page design which allows users to easily focus on MC and use SC as desired.
  • A website which is well cared for and maintained “
While it’s always useful to read and understand the Quality Rater Guidelines, they echo what we already knew: the way to have a website that ranks highly in Google search is to create high-quality, user-friendly content. These guidelines are helpful, however, in providing detailed examples of content and websites that both Google and your visitors will love.
What do you think of the new guidelines? Anything surprise you? Share your thoughts in the comments below!

2014年7月18日星期五

王雲五關於 analytic 的字意說明

在禪宗未起以前,印度便有「瑜伽」,梵文為 yoga。此字是印度文與日耳曼文的混合語,在英文中為牛軛,引申起來,是管束的意思。即如何才能管束我們的心,訓練我們的心,使心完全向某一方向走,而能於身體上、精神上和知識上發生好的結果。

我前幾天查幾本辭典 yoga語原都是
[Hindi, from Sanskrit yogaḥ, union, joining.]

我以前在王雲五關於 analytic 的說明, 赫然發現他用的意思,正是Deming 所用的*,


所以我想去查胡適為何如此 這是太明顯的問題 我想去查1911年的大英
今天一查日本辭典 果然
  • [jóugə]
[名][U]((時にY-))《ヒンズー教》瑜伽(ゆが), ヨーガ
yogas of ...
何年もの….
[ヒンディ語←サンスクリットyoga(結合). △YOKE1
yo・gic〔jóuik〕
[形]
yó・gism
[名]



*

區別計數性及分析性研究

(譯按:戴明博士的「分析型研究」的意義,王雲五先生說得很明白:「『分析』可能有四個意義,除上述由整而分析的第一義,也可稱為化學的分析之外,….所謂數學的分析,即分析的第二義,係指從已知推及未知而言;所謂論理的分析,即分析的第三義,係指從結果追溯原因而言;所謂文學的分析,即分析的第四義,係指以部分代全部而言。」(王雲五「科學管理與科學方法」,收入《岫盧論管理》,頁21) ))

「任何實驗或可視為可能在相同條件下進行之諸實驗的〝母體〞之一個體。一系列的實驗為從此母體抽出之一樣本。
任何系列實驗,只有在使吾人能對該實驗所屬母體的統計常識能做出判斷時,才有用處。在很多時候,問題成為平均值,是直接平均值或兩數量差異平均。」(Student, 1908
「綜而言之,實驗必須如此進行,即其結果必須能成為要做結論之母體的隨機抽樣。」(Student, 1926
在完全計數或抽樣的設計及分析上,區別計數性(enumerative)及分析性(analytic)研究是極為重要的。此兩類研究的最後目的都是要提供處理/ 行動之理性基礎。問題存在那兒,有時有待解決。在計數性問題上,要對碗之某部份內容做些事,不管該部份是大或小。而在分析性問題上,是要做某事以管制及預測原因系統之結果,而該原因系統是過去造成母體 the universe 城市、市場、工業產品批、麥穀)者,而未來也會繼續影響之。
問題屬計數性的,因為該行動(即分配食物及物料)依多少人而定,而不是這些人民為何居於該城市。
就消費者角度而言,工業品之允收抽樣為一計數性運用數據;但是就生產者而言,可視為一分析性,因為該等抽樣有助其控制其製程。

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